Memo-what? - A Guide to Memoization

Today, I’m going to talk about a feature that’s not all new in Rails but it’s still got the smell of a freshly unwrapped present: Memoization. I’d like to thank Josh Peek from the Rails Core team for giving feedback on the article before I published it - thanks, mate!

It Really Just Means Caching the Result

The concept behind it is actually fairly easy to grasp: Instead of calling the same (possibly expensive to run) method that will return the same result over and over again, why not just store the result of the first method call and re-use it afterwards? Ryan Bates often refers to this as caching the result in his Railscasts. You can also read a more general description of the memoization pattern over at Reference.com.

Let’s take a look at a simple example. We have a City class that has a zipcode and a name. We’ll usually use both of these in our application, so we might write a method that looks like this:

def zipcode_and_name
  "#{zipcode} #{name}"

Memoize Away!

This is perfectly valid, however, every time we call this method during one request it always re-constructs the resulting string. So let’s memoize the call in the classic way that you might have already stumbled across:

def zipcode_and_name
  @zipcode_and_name ||= "#{zipcode} #{name}"

The ||= operator is a so-called conditional assignment that only assigns the value on its right to the variable on its left if the variable is not true. Since pretty much everything in Ruby evaluates to true when coerced into a boolean (except nil and, of course, false, as well as a couple of other things) this is exactly what we want: The first call returns the actual string and from the second time on, no matter how often the method is called on the same object, the “cached” result will be used.

A little note on naming here: Some people seem to prefer prefixing the memoizing variable’s name with an underscore to indicate that it’s not meant to be used as an actual instance variable. To be honest, I don’t think this is really necessary unless you define a whole bunch of instance variables and memoized variables.

Memoizable - The Macro-Style Way of Doing Memoziation

On July 15, 2008 Josh Peek added the Memoizable module to Rails core. Originally, this was only meant to be used internally in Rails to prevent some annoying errors when manually memoizing methods in frozen objects. Here’s how Josh Peek explains the reasons for including the Memoizable module:

The initial motivation was to fix an issue with freezing memoizable methods. If you do it the old way, and freeze the object before calling the method first, the method will complain that it can’t modify the instance var. The fix was to call all the memoized methods on freeze.

I found this pattern really useful for creating a class that could be lazy loaded or eager loaded. So you write your classes up in a lazy load stye, memoize the methods with the helper, and - if you need to eager load - use freeze to transition the object to a final fully cached state. I’m not sure if this is for everyone, but its been really useful internal in Rails.

Although it was meant for internal purposes, the inclusion of this module initially kick-started some discussion as to whether the responsibilities for memoization should be taken away from the programmer by putting it in a module. However, Josh decided to take some of the proposals and include them in the Rails core, so now all it does is abstract the functionality in a - in my opinion - really clean way.

To cut a long story short, here’s the example we used earlier, rewritten to use the Memoizable API:

# somewhere inside the class
extend ActiveSupport::Memoizable

def zipcode_and_name
  "#{zipcode} #{name}"
memoize :zipcode_and_name

The memoize macro method then takes care of caching the method call result and retrieving it as necessary.

Part of the initial criticism also where that there was no way to force the cached result to be reloaded and that memoize wouldn’t work with methods that accepted parameters. Both of these issues have been fixed later - so methods with parameters can now be memoized as well:

def some_method(*args)
  # some calculations
memoize :some_method

This roughly equals the following code (and is actually pretty much how the Memoizable module handles it internally):

def some_method(*args)
  @some_method ||= {}
  @some_method[args] ||= (
    # some calculation

What happens here is that the cache is a hash instead of a mere scalar and the hash is indexed by the parameters that are passed to the method. So if I call a method twice with the same parameters, I’ll get the cached result on the second call.

Reloading a cached result is pretty easy, too:

object.some_memoized_method(:reload) \# or, less self-explanatory: object.some_memoized_method(true)

Beware of the Dynamics!

I can already feel people finishing reading this article and then going back to their code and doing something like this to their User class:

def age
  today = Date.today
  today.year - birth_date.year + (today.month - birth_date.month + ((today.day - birth_date.day) < 0 ? -1 : 0) < 0 ? -1 : 0)
memoize :age

This may seem okay but imagine running this method one second before midnight on the day before a user’s birthday: The memoized value will be returned even if the process runs longer than midnight (two seconds, say) and it’s already their birthday!

The point of this certainly simple example is as follows: If a method uses data that is inherently dynamic, such as the current date/time, random numbers, lambdas/procs and the like, it’s not really a good fit for memoization. On the contrary - it might even lead to all kinds of weird behavior and bugs!

Tips and Tricks

Here are some tips and tricks that didn’t seem to fit anywhere else in the article.

Memoizing Class Methods

Since memoize is already a class method, if you want to memoize a class method, you have to put the memoize call in the class’ metaclass:

def self.a_class_method
  # some code
class << self; extend ActiveSupport::Memoizable; self; end.memoize :a_class_method

As you can see, this is not really clean - so here’s a better way:

class << self
  extend ActiveSupport::Memoizable

  def a_class_method
    # some code
  memoize :a_class_method

Way better!

A little hint if you want to use the “old style” for memoizing class methods: You have to use instance variables (with one \@ rather than two) to cache the results! This is because inside the context of a class method the instance is the class itself rather than the instance. If you don’t get what I’m talking about, you might want to check out Dave Thomas’ screencast series on Ruby Metaprogramming.

Enable Memoization For All Active Records

If you want to use memoize in a lot of your ActiveRecord models, you might think about extending the Memoizable module inside ActiveRecord::Base:

# for memoizing instance methods:

# for memoizing class methods:
ActiveRecord::Base.class_eval { class << self; extend ActiveSupport::Memoizable; end }

This way, every descendant of ActiveRecord (i.e. all of your models) will be able to call memoize without having to extend the module first.

Return Values Are Frozen!

There’s one more thing that tends to creates both, confusion and controversy: Return values of memoized methods are frozen - which basically means you can’t modify the return object itself but rather have to dup it first. As Josh stated in the quote above, the freezing problems where the reason behind the Memoizable module - so I guess, frozen return values are a trade-off that we have to just accept.

When Should You Use memoize and When Should You Just Stick to the Classic Style?

You might also ask yourself how to decide when you should use memoize and when to stick to the “old way” of storing the result in an instance variable yourself. So here’s my rule of thumb: If you may need to reload the cached result during a request, you might want to use memoize because it offers a simple way for reloading - it’s way harder to implement that yourself! Otherwise, I tend to look at the complexity of the method: If the method is a simple one- or two-liner, I use the classic style - if it involves more complex logic, I prefer memoize.

What Do You Think?

I hope this article comes in handy for some of you who haven’t heard of memoization yet or who just didn’t really understand what’s going on there. As always, I’m looking forward to reading your comments - also, feel free to ask questions if something remained unclear!